[식량] 기아 퇴치 및 오염 저감 위해 곤충 더 많이 먹어야(FAO)

Edible insects
Future prospects for food and feed security

FAO Forestry Paper 171

출처 : http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3253e/i3253e00.htm

Rome, 2013

Download Full Report – 5.7Mb


Author’s preface
Executive Summary
Download – 648kb

1. Introduction

2. The role of insects

    Beneficial roles of insects for nature and humans
    Entomophagy around the world
    Examples of important insect species consumed
    Important insect products
    Download – 835kb

3. Culture, religion and the history of entomophagy

    Why are insects not eaten in Western countries?
    Why were insects never domesticated for food
    Negative attitudes towards insects
    History of entomophagy
    Download – 127kb

4. Edible insects as a natural resource

    Edible insect ecology
    Collecting from the wild: potential threats and solutions
    Conservation and management of edible insect resources
    Semi-cultivation of edible insects
    Pest management
    Download – 765kb

5. Environmental opportunities of insect rearing for food and feed

    Feed conversion
    Organic side streams
    Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions
    Water use
    Life cycle analysis
    Animal welfare
    Risk of zoonotic infections
    “One Health” concept
    Download – 154kb

6. Nutritional value of insects for human consumption

    Nutritional composition
    Beef versus insects: an example of the mealworm
    Insects as part of diets
    Sustainable diets
    Edible insects in emergency relief programmes
    Download – 2,7 Mb

7. Insects as animal feed

    Poultry and fish fed with insects
    Key insect species used as feed
    Download – 145kb

8. Farming insects

    Definitions and concepts
    Insect farming
    Insect farming for human consumption
    Insect farming for feed
    Recommendations on insect farming
    Download – 105kb

9. Processing edible insects for food and feed

10. Food safety and preservation

    Preservation and storage
    Insect features, food safety and antimicrobial compounds
    Download – 115kb

11. Edible insects as an engine for improving livelihoods

    Insects as a part of the minilivestock sector
    Improving local diets
    Access, tenure and rights to natural capital
    Inclusion of women
    Download – 97kb

12. Economics: cash income, enterprise development, markets
and trade

    Cash income
    Enterprise development
    Developing markets for insect products
    Market strategies
    Download – 116kb

13. Promoting insects as feed and food

    The disgust factor
    Drawing on traditional knowledge
    Role of stakeholders
    Download – 150kb

14. Regulatory frameworks governing the use of insects for
food security

15. The way forward



Forest products critical to fight hunger – including insects


New study highlights role of insects for food and feed consumption

출처 : http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/175922/icode/

Photo: ©FAO/Giulio Napolitano
A woman selling dried caterpillars in Kinshasha, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Rome, 13 May 2013 – Forests, trees on farms and agroforestry are critical in the fight against hunger and should be better integrated into food security and land use policies, FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva said today at the International Conference on Forests for Food Security and Nutrition in Rome (13-15 May).

“Forests contribute to the livelihoods of more than a billion people, including many of the world’s neediest. Forests provide food, fuel for cooking, fodder for animals and income to buy food,” Graziano da Silva said.

“Wild animals and insects are often the main protein source for people in forest areas, while leaves, seeds, mushrooms, honey and fruits provide minerals and vitamins, thus ensuring a nutritious diet.”

“But forests and agroforestry systems are rarely considered in food security and land use policies. Often, rural people do not have secure access rights to forests and trees, putting their food security in danger. The important contributions forests can make to the food security and nutrition of rural people should be better recognized,” Graziano da Silva said.

Frittered critters – wild and farm-raised insects

One major and readily available source of nutritious and protein-rich food that comes from forests are insects, according to a new study FAO launched at the forests for food security and nutrition conference. It is estimated that insects form part of the traditional diets of at least 2 billion people. Insect gathering and farming can offer employment and cash income, for now mostly at the household level but also potentially in industrial operations.

An astounding array of creatures

With about 1 million known species, insects account for more than half of all living organisms classified so far on the planet.

According to FAO’s research, done in partnership with Wageningen University in the Netherlands, more than 1900 insect species are consumed by humans worldwide. Globally, the most consumed insects are: beetles (31 percent); caterpillars (18 percent); bees, wasps and ants (14 percent); and grasshoppers, locusts and crickets (13 percent). Many insects are rich in protein and good fats and high in calcium, iron and zinc. Beef has an iron content of 6 mg per 100 g of dry weight, while the iron content of locusts varies between 8 and 20 mg per 100 g of dry weight, depending on the species and the kind of food they themselves consume.

First steps for the squeamish

“We are not saying that people should be eating bugs,” said Eva Muller, Director of FAO’s Forest Economic Policy and Products Division, which co-authored “Edible insects: Future prospects for food and feed security”.

“We are saying that insects are just one resource provided by forests, and insects are pretty much untapped for their potential for food, and especially for feed,” Muller explained.

Farming insects sustainably could help avoid over-harvesting, which could affect more prized species. Some species, such as meal worms, are already produced at commercial levels, since they are used in niche markets such as pet food, for zoos and in recreational fishing.

If production were to be further automated, this would eventually bring costs down to a level where industry would profit from substituting fishmeal, for example, with insect meal in livestock feed. The advantage would be an increase in fish supplies available for human consumption.

Bugs get bigger on less

Because they are cold-blooded, insects don’t use energy from feed to maintain body temperature. On average, insects use just 2 kg of feed to produce 1 kilo of insect meat. Cattle, at the other end of the spectrum, require 8 kg of feed to produce 1 kg of beef.

In addition, insects produce a fraction of emissions such as methane, ammonia, climate-warming greenhouse gases and manure, all of which contaminate the environment. In fact, insects can be used to break down waste, assisting in the composting processes that deliver nutrients back to the soil while also diminishing foul odours.

Enabling policies lacking

However, legislation in most industrialized nations forbids the actual feeding of waste materials and slurry or swill to animals, even though this would be the material that insects normally feed on. Further research would be necessary, especially as regards the raising of insects on waste streams. But it is widely understood by scientists that insects are so biologically different from mammals that it is highly unlikely that insect diseases could be transmitted to humans.

Regulations often also bar using insects in food for human consumption, although with a growing number of novel food stores and restaurants cropping up in developed countries, it seems to be largely tolerated.

As with  other types of food, hygienic production, processing and food preparation will be important to avoid the growth of bacteria and other micro-organisms that could affect human health. Food safety standards can be expanded to include insects and insect-based products, and quality control standards along the production chain will be key to creating consumer confidence in feed and food containing insects or derived from insects.

“The private sector is ready to invest in insect farming. We have huge opportunities before us,” said Paul Vantomme, one of the authors of the report. “But until there is clarity in the legal sphere, no major business is going to take the risk to invest funds when the laws remains unclear or actually hinders development of this new sector,” he explained.


FAO “기아 퇴치 및 오염 저감 위해 곤충 더 많이 먹어야”
  뉴시스  기사등록 일시 [2013-05-14 14:17:08]

【로마=AP/뉴시스】이수지 기자 = 유엔이 기아 퇴치, 영양 보충, 환경오염 저감을 위한 신무기로 식용 곤충을 지목했다.

유엔 식량농업기구(FAO)가 13일(현지시간) 인류, 가축, 애완동물의 식량으로 충분히 이용하지 못했던 메뚜기와 개미 등 식용 곤충을 적극 권장했다.

FAO는 이날 발표한 200쪽 분량의 보고서에서 전 세계 20억 명이 이미 단백질과 미네랄이 풍부한 곤충을 먹고 있으며 곤충 식이가 환경적으로 도움이 된다고 밝혔다.

FAO는 사료 대비 식품 생산에 곤충이 매우 효율적이라고 강조했다. 보통 곤충의 경우 사료 2㎏으로 1㎏의 곤충 식품을 만들 수 있지만, 가축의 경우 가축에게 사료 8㎏을 먹어야 1㎏의 고기 식품을 만들 수 있다.

FAO는 곤충은 환경적으로 해로운 온실가스를 배출하지 않고 쓰레기와 동물 분뇨를 먹으며 농업 사료로도 사용된다고 말했다.

현재 식용 곤충 대부분이 숲에 서식하며 곤충 농장은 종종 가족 경영으로 이뤄져 틈새시장에 곤충을 공급하고 있다. 그러나 유엔은 기계화가 곤충 양식 생산을 단계적으로 늘릴 수 있다고 주장하고 있다. 예를 들어 낚시 미끼 산업에서 오래 전부터 곤충 양식이 이뤄졌다.

FAO는 곤충 양식을 식량과 사료 확보 문제의 해법으로 소개했다.

FAO는 이날 보고서에서 “곤충은 곳곳에 있고 빠르게 번식한다”며 “곤충이 남기는 환경에 미치는 영향 ‘환경 족적(environmental footprint)’도 작다”고 밝혔다. FAO는 이어 “곤충이 육류와 생선보다 고단백질을 함유해 결식아동을 위한 영양 보충제로 특히 중요하다”고 말했다.

곤충에는 구리, 철, 마그네슘, 망간, 인, 셀레늄, 아연뿐 아니라 섬유질도 풍부하다.

FAO는 식용 곤충 프로그램에서 엄밀히 곤충은 아니지만, 거미와 전갈 등 절지동물의 활용 가능성도 검토할 것이라고 지적했다.

대학의 생물학자들은 식용 곤충의 영양 가치를 분석했으며, 딱정벌레, 개미, 귀뚜라미, 메뚜기 같은 곤충의 g당 단백질 함유량이 육류, 생선에 거의 가깝다고 밝혔다.

곤충의 맛에 대해서 FAO는 이 보고서에서 남아프리카의 애벌레와 동남아시아 베짜기 개미의 번데기는 진미라 고가에 팔린다고 지적했다.

그리고 곤충을 먹는다는 생각하지 않을 것 같은 사람들도 이미 곤충을 먹었을 것이다. 많은 사람이 무의식 중에 곤충을 먹게 된다.


댓글 남기기

이메일은 공개되지 않습니다.

다음의 HTML 태그와 속성을 사용할 수 있습니다: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>